Hormones & Inhibitors, etc.

Hormones & Inhibitors, etc. kdorfman Wed, 06/20/2018 - 21:25

By compound

By compound kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:49


ATP kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:50

10 mM ATP Stock
(from Maniotis)

  • 60 mg ATP in 8 mL H2O
  • pH to 7.0 with 0.1 M NaOH
  • Bring volume to 10 mL with H2O
  • Aliquot and freeze.


Angiotensin kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 17:10

Sigma A9525 1mg/mL in water


Soluble in water 25 mg/mL (only use sterile water!)

MW: 1046.18 Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Subject to degradation in freezer storage - wear gloves!

Make 1 mg/mL stock (= 1.0462 mM)

Working concentration 1 µM

Dissolve 1:1000 in HBS


BMS kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 13:50

BMS 833923

Cayman Chemical 16240

___ ___
CAS Registry No. 1059734-66-5
Formal Name: N-[2-methyl-5-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl]-4-[(4-phenyl-2-quinazolinyl)amino]-benzamide
Synonym XL 139
MF: C30H27N5O
FW: 473.6
Purity: ≥98%S
Stability: ≥2 years at -20°C
Solubility 0.1 mg/ml in a 1:7 solution of ethanol:PBS (dissolve in ethanol first!) Use aqueous solution within 1 day
Supplied as: A crystalline solid
UV/Vis. λmax: 315 nm

Smoothened (Smo) is a cell surface receptor that, with Patched, mediates sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling to regulate gene expression through the Gli transcription factors.1 BMS 833923 is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of Smo.2,3 It blocks binding of BODIPY cyclopamine (IC50 = 21 nM) and inhibits Gli activation in cell lines that express wild-type Smo or activated mutant forms of Smo (IC50s = 6-35 nM). BMS 833923 robustly inhibits Shh pathway activity and prevents tumor growth in medulloblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma xenograft models.


  1. Ruiz-Gómez, A., Molnar, C., Holguín, H., et al. The cell biology of Smo signalling and its relationships with GPCRs. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1768(4), 901-912 (2007).

  2. Sandhiya, S., Melvin, G., Kumar, S.S., et al. The dawn of hedgehog inhibitors: Vismodegib. J. Pharmacol. Pharmacother.4(1), 4-7 (2013).

  3. Lin, T.L. and Matsui, W. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: Smoothened inhibitors in development. OncoTargets and Therapy5, 47-58 (2012)


BP-A kdorfman Mon, 03/22/2021 - 18:11

Bisphenol A

Sigma 239658

MW 228.29

100 mM stock in DMSO = 0.023g/mL


BP-S kdorfman Mon, 03/22/2021 - 18:12


Sigma 103039

MW = 250.27

100 mM stock in DMSO = 0.025g/mL


Blebbistatin kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:49

Myosin inhibitor

(-)-Blebbistatin Sigma B05650-1mg

Info from Cayman:

A stock solution may be made by dissolving the (±)-blebbistatin in an organic solvent purged with an inert gas. (±)-Blebbistatin is soluble in organic solvents such as DMSO and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The solubility of (±)-blebbistatin in these solvents is approximately 10 mg/mL.

(±)-Blebbistatin is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, (±)-blebbistatin should first be dissolved in DMF and then diluted with the aqueous buffer of choice. (±)-Blebbistatin has a solubility of approximately 0.5 mg/ml in a 1:1 solution of DMF:PBS (pH 7.2) using this method. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one day.

(±)-Blebbistatin is a selective cell-permeable inhibitor of non-muscle myosin II ATPases.1,2 It rapidly and reversibly inhibits Mg-ATPase activity and in vitro motility of non-muscle myosin IIA and IIB for several species (IC50 = 0.5-5.0 μM), while poorly inhibiting smooth muscle myosin (IC50 = 80 μM).3 Through these effects, blebbistatin blocks apoptosis-related bleb formation, directed cell migration and cytokinesis in vertebrate cells. Blebbistatin is inactivated by UV light,4 which may be particularly important in fluorescent cell imaging applications.

Note green fluorescent crystals seen in a 75µM solution.

Stock was 1 mg/mL in DMSO

44 µL 1mg/mL blebbistatin in DMSO in 1 mL non-CO2 medium


1 mg in 34 µL DMSO = ~100mM

MW = 292

Use at ~150 µM


Bradykinin kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 18:56
  • 9-amino acid peptide chain: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg

Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels

*Sigma B3259 - 1 mg septum bottle

  • MW = 1060.2

    1 mg/mL stock
    (= 1.0602 mM)

Add 1 mL H2O to the 1 mg in the bottle (NO CALCIUM! - some will be used for the calcium experiments in Lab 7.2)

Aliquots are 21.2 µL.

2 µM solution for use
(=2.12 µg/mL)

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A kdorfman Tue, 11/12/2019 - 20:48

Fisher 00-4506 1000x solution

Keep in refrigerator


Brefeldin A is an inhibitor of intracellular protein transport. Incubation of cells in culture with Brefeldin A leads to blockade of protein transport to the Golgi complex (GC) and accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Addition of Brefeldin A during the last hours of in vitro activation of cells results in enhanced detection of intracellular cytokines. Brefeldin A is effective for enhanced detection of a majority of mouse and human intracellular cytokines; however, it is advised that the investigators evaluate the use and efficacy of this reagent as well as other protein transport inhibitors such as Monensin in their specific assay system.

Applications Reported

The Brefeldin A Solution is supplied at 1000X working concentration in methanol. Prior to addition to the cell cultures, a 1:1000 dilution in the culture media should be made. The final working concentration of the Brefeldin A (at 1x) is 3.0 ug/ml.


Caffeine kdorfman Tue, 04/13/2021 - 15:25

MW 194.19

Soluble 10 mg/mL in water (with heat and stirring)

Make a 50mM (=0.05M) solution: 9.71mg/mL


Cannabinol kdorfman Fri, 05/11/2018 - 16:11

Tetrahydrocannabinol solution 1 mg/mL in methanol

Sigma T464

store at 4C

Vial is in a white box in fridge door, room 362A


Centrinone kdorfman Thu, 06/01/2023 - 18:38

PLK4 (Polo-like kinase) inhibitor

Plk4 has been identified as a master regulator of centriole replication, and its aberrant expression is closely associated with cancer development

PLK4 functions downstream of ROCK2 to drive centrosome amplification in arrested cells. PLK4 overexpression induces centrosome amplification and chromosome instability and causes the suppression of primary cilia formation.

100uM stock

  • use 125 nM for HeLa (2.5 uL stock in 2 mL medium)

  • use 300 nM for LLCPk-1 (6 uL stock in 2 mL medium)

Concanavalin A

Concanavalin A kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 18:21
  • Sigma C5275 5 mg
  • Plant mitogen
  • Lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) extracted from the jack-bean, Canavalia ensiformis
  • Con A binds specifically to α-Mannose, α-Galactose structures found in sugars, glycoproteins and glycolipids

  • Make stock 5 mg/mL solution (add 1 mL sterile PBS to bottle – gently rotate to mix)

  • Keep sterile - work in sterile hood

  • aliquot 100 µL into microfuge tubes  (cannot take repeated freeze-thaw cycles)

Con A coverslips

Con A coverslips kdorfman Sun, 05/24/2020 - 15:38

Requirements:   * Acid washed coverslips stored in 100% ethanol.

  • ConA 0.5 mg/mL. 

  • Large petri dishes to store the coverslips.    


  • Flame the acid-washed coverslips and cool for 10 sec.    
    (Make 9-14 coverslips at a time to save time.)

  • Place the coverslips on top of the large petri dish.     

  • Thaw the conA from the freezer and dilute to 0.5 mg/mL 

  • apply around 400uL to the first two coverslips 

  • Wait for 10 sec. 

  • Tilt the coverslips and suck out the excess ConA 

  • Repeat the same for all the coverslips. 

  • Cover the petri dish with another lid of petri dish and allow a small opening to dry.

  • If possible,use a vacuum pump  to dry it faster.   

The process usually takes 15 minutes and drying takes half an hour. 


  * In a petri dish, place the coverslips on top of a clean kimwipe with the conA surface facing up.

  • Cover with the lid. 10 min before needed, UV sterilize them.

  • Alternatively, UV sterilize all of them after drying and open the dishes only in aseptic conditions or inside hood.       

Con A dishes

Con A dishes kdorfman Sun, 05/24/2020 - 15:37

Concanavalin-coated coverslip dishes

  • Start with 5 mg/mL ConA stock solution

  • Keep sterile - work in sterile hood

  • aliquot 100 µL into microfuge tubes  (cannot take repeated freeze-thaw cycles)

  • Coat coverslip bottom dishes with either:

    • 0.75 mL 0.1 mg/mL:  0.015 mL (5 mg/mL) + 0.735 mL PBS
    • 0.75 mL 0.5 mg/mL:  0.075 mL (5 mg/mL) + 0.675 mL PBS
  • Incubate the coverslip dishes for 1 hour 37˚C 

  • Remove the solution

  • rinse in PBS 

  • Air dry the dish.

Cyclin Inhibitor

Cyclin Inhibitor kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 19:55

CKD1 inhibitor IV RO3306

1 mM in DMSO

A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase. Several function as tumor suppressor proteins. Cell cycle progression is negatively controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (called CDIs, CKIs or CDKIs). CDIs are involved in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase.


Cycloheximide bcrcstaff Thu, 03/21/2019 - 13:28

Protein synthesis inhibitor

Fisher AC357420010

MW = 281.35 g/mol


Solubility in water: 2.1 g/100mL (

soluble in chloroform, ether, acetone, methanol, and ethanol



Cyclopamine kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 13:43

ApexBio A8340

10 mM

Store in freezer


MW = 411.62

Soluble 6.86 mg/mL in DMSO (warm to 37C and shake to get it into solution)

Reaction Conditions :

  • 20 μM, 48 hours for cell yield inhibition
  • 10 μM, 48 hours for apoptosis induction (measured by PARP expression)

Cyclopamine is a naturally occurring Hedgehog (Hh)?specific small?molecule signaling steroidal alkaloid inhibitor, causes a profound inhibition of tumor growth, has significant anti?invasive, anti?proliferative and anti?estrogenic potency in human breast cancer cells [2] [1]. The EC50 of cyclopamine is 10.57 μM, it was identified by an FXR-bla (farnesoid X receptor- b-lactamase) assay [3].

Hh signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis [4]. Hh signaling pathway shows saliency in regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation in a wide array of human tissues. It is related to aberrant cell survival in numerous human malignancies, ranging from BCCs and medulloblastomas to small cell lung, gastrointestinal, breast and prostate tumors [1].

Treated with cyclopamine (10 or 20 μM) only and incubated for time periods ranging from 0 to10 days, MCF-7 cells and MDA?MB?231 cells displayed a significant reduction in proliferation rate compared with the control cells on days 3 and 6 (P

Embryoes exposed to cyclopamine resulted in visible external defects, including cyclopia, proboscis formation, microphthalmia, thoracic lordosis, amelia and decreased body size. Examination of gastrointestinal organs revealed severe deficits, including less length of the gut tube and mesenchymal cell numbers in foregut-derived organs. Ectopic structures in duodenum, stomach, and dorsal pancreas were also found [5].

Cytochalasin D

Cytochalasin D kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 18:21

MW = 507.62
Sigma C2618: 200 µL 5 mg/mL (~10 mM) in DMSO
Sigma C8273: 5 mg. Dissolve in 1 mL DMSO

  • alkaloid mycotoxin produced by Helminthosporium and other molds.
  • disrupts actin microfilaments
  • binds to F-actin polymer
  • prevents polymerization of actin monomers
  • Aliquot 10 µL 10 mM
  • Add 90 uL DMSO (makes 1 mM)
  • Dilute this 1:1000 into medium (makes 1uM)
  • Dilute the 1 uM to desired working concentration

  • Store in the dark, in the freezer

  • Adding 490 µL of non-CO2 medium makes 500 µL of 200 µM

  • Final dilution should contain no more than 0.1% DMSO

  • 250 nM in the dish should give an effect

  • 15 - 30 min


DAPT kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 18:16

Biological Activity for DAPT (Info from Tocris 2634)

Purchased from Fisher: AAJ65864MA

Mfr: Thermo Scientific Chemicals J65864MA

M. Wt: 432.46 Formula: C23H26F2N2O4 Store at +4°C Light sensitive

Solubility: 43.24 mg/mL (100 mM) in DMSO

DAPT is a γ-secretase inhibitor. DAPT reduces Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in human primary neuronal cultures (IC50 values are 115 and 200 nM for total Aβ and Aβ42 respectively) and in brain extract, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in vivo. DAPT has no effect on APPα and APPβ levels. DAPT blocks Notch signaling in hybrid human-mouse fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) and causes ESCs to commit to neuronal differentiation. DAPT can be used in a small molecule cocktail to derive cortical neurons from hPSCs and to maintain hepatocytes in culture. DAPT also promotes the formation of cone photoreceptors in retinal organoids.


Estradiol kdorfman Thu, 03/24/2022 - 17:40


Cayman Chemical 10006315

(Purchased 2022 for NAP lab Bio 388)

500 mg

Store powder at -20

Make 0.05M stock solution: 0.068 g in 5 mL DMSO. vortex

__ __
CAS​ Registry​No 50-28-2
Formal​ Name estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol
Synonyms β-Estradiol, Estradiol, 17β-Oestradiol, E2
MF C18H24O2
FW 272.4
Purity ≥98%
Stability ≥2 years at -20°C
Supplied ​as A crystalline solid
UV/Vis λmax: 281 nm
solubility 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol
20 mg/mL in DMSO
0.2 mg/mL in a 1:4 solution of DMSO:PBS (pH 7).
Dissolve in DMSO first!
Use within a day

Estrogens direct the development of the female genotype in embryogenesis and at puberty. 17β-Estradiol is the major estrogen secreted by the premenopausal ovary. It is synthesized from testosterone primarily in the ovarian granulosa cells and placenta, but small amounts can be produced in the adrenal gland.1,2 Plasma 17β-estradiol levels increase gradually between days 1-7 of the menstrual cycle followed by a sharp increase to a peak value of about 300 pg/ml on day 12, just prior to ovulation


Fibronectin kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 17:15

Sigma F1141

Attachment factor

GSA 10

GSA 10 kdorfman Thu, 01/28/2021 - 18:39

Smo (Smoothened) receptor* agonist

Tocris 4918 10 mg

MW = 459.94

Make a 5 mM stock solution in 4.34 mL DMSO (heat to 50C to dissolve)

*Non-classical G-protein-coupled receptors that belong to the Frizzled family. Smoothened receptors lack the ability to directly interact with their endogenous ligand, Hedgehog (Hh). In the resting state, Smo receptors are bound to patched (Ptc).

Does not recognize the classic cyclopamine (Cat. No. 1623) binding site. Does not promote Smo translocation to the primary cilium; is strongly potentiated by forskolin and cholera toxin. Displays anti-adipogenic effects in vitro, mediated by a non-canonical Hedgehog signaling pathway. Promotes differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells into osteoblasts.


H-89 kdorfman Mon, 03/22/2021 - 18:08

H 89 hydrochloride Tocris 2910

  • Protein kinase A inhibitor
  • Also inhibits several other kinases (IC50 values are 80, 120, 135, 270, 2600 and 2800 nM for S6K1, MSK1, PKA, ROCKII, PKBα and MAPKAP-K1b).
  • Exhibits antinociceptive activity.
  • Enhances survival and clonogenicity of dissociated human ESCs through ROCK inhibition.

Store in freezer

1 mg

MW 532.79

1 mg/mL in DMSO

data sheet

HU (Hydroxyurea)

HU (Hydroxyurea) kdorfman Wed, 01/06/2021 - 18:29
ingredient working conc MW stock
HU 0.2 M 76 Koshand lab 2M in H2O

Hydroxyurea: (Sigma H8267-1g)

  • To make 50 mL YPD with 0.2M HU
  • vi = (0.2M * 50 mL)/2M = 5 mL

  • 100µL 2M stock per mL medium

  • Buy 1 g, make 6.6 mL 2M stock

  • MW = 76, so 1 g = 1/76 mol = 0.0132 mol
  • vol = (1000 mL/2 mol) * 0.0132 mol = 6.6 mL

See yeast recipes for QBoC https://wahoo.cns.umass.edu/node/554/


Haloperidol kdorfman Thu, 03/24/2022 - 20:06

TCI H0912


MW 375.87


  • 0.1 M HCl: 3 mg/mL
  • DMSO: soluble
  • H2O: insoluble
  • ethanol: soluble (only in theory - in practice, not so much)

Make 10 mL 10mM stock solution: 0.376g in 10 mL DMSO. Vortex to mix

Haloperidol has been used:

  • in ethanol to serves as an inhibitor of Erg2p
  • to address the mechanism of haloperidol in ferroptosis using hepatocellular carcinoma cells: Hep G2 and Huh-7 cell lines
  • in receptor internalization assay
  • as an antipsychotic drug in Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle medium

Biochem/physiol Actions:

Haloperidol is a butyrophenone antipsychotic. It is also classified as a neuroleptic (powerful tranquilizer). Haloperidol acts as a D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor antagonist and thus causes Parkinson′s disorder. It also has a negative effect on the central nervous system.

  1. from Sigma ↩︎


Hydrocorisone kdorfman Mon, 03/22/2021 - 18:06

Fisher A16292 (Alfa Aesar) 1 g

1 mg/mL in 100% ethanol.


IGF-1R I kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 14:37

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor

Selleck Chemicals BMS-536924

Molecular Formula: C25H26ClN5O3

Formula Weight: 479.96

Solublity: 96 mg/mL in DMSO


IWP-2 kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 16:47

Selleck Chemical S7085 (Fisher NC0736836)

IWP-2 is an inhibitor of Wnt processing and secretion with IC50 of 27 nM in a cell-free assay, selective blockage of Porcn-mediated Wnt palmitoylation, does not affect Wnt/β-catenin in general and displays no effect against Wnt-stimulated cellular responses. IWP-2 specifically inhibits CK1δ.

Selective inhibitor of Porcn-mediated Wnt secretion.

IWP-2 is useful in both regenerative medicine and anticancer efforts. IWP-2 inactivates Porcn, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT), and selectively inhibits palmitoylation of Wnt. IWP-2 blocks Wnt-dependent phosphorylation of Lrp6 receptor and Dvl2, and β-catenin accumulation.

Soluble in DMF at 12.5 mg/mL (26.79 mM) Insoluble in water and DMSO

Concentration 1 mg/ 5 mg/ 10 mg/
1 mM 2.1432 mL 10.7158 mL 21.4316 mL
5 mM 0.4286 mL 2.1432 mL 4.2863 mL
10 mM 0.2143 mL 1.716 mL 2.1432 mL
50 mM - - -


Importazole kdorfman Thu, 05/10/2018 - 14:25

401105-10mg Calbiochem

Importazole is an inhibitor of importin-β transport receptors.

During interphase, the transport receptor importin-β carries cargoes into the nucleus, where RanGTP releases them. Importazole somehow disrupts the importin/RAN interaction. Importazole is selective among other transporters. Compounds are imported into, but not out of, cells.

A cell-permeable diaminoquinazoline compound that selectively blocks importin-β-mediated nuclear import of NLS bearing cargos in a reversible manner.

Soluble in DMSO (25 mg/ml; clear, colorless solution)

5 mg/mL ailquots in freezer


Ionomycin kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 18:47

Raises intracellular calcium levels

Fisher or Invitrogen (Life Technologies) I24222

1 mM in DMSO or EtOH. 1 mg makes 1.34 mL stock.

3 µM Ionomycin in HBS
Dilute stock 1:333 in HBS: 3 µL/1 mL

24 µL in 8 mL, aliquot 800 µL

They only need 750µL, because they do one experiment in HBS, then two in Ca-free HBS.

3 µM Ionomycin in Ca-free HBS
Dilute stock 1:333 in Ca-free HBS: 3 µL/1 mL
45 µL in 15 mL

Takes a long time to thaw. Vortex.

Aliquot 1.55 mL so they can do two 750 µL experiments


Jasplakinolide kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 17:44

(out of stock 2018)

  • Jasplakinolide – Santa Cruz biochemical, product sc202191 F
    • inducer of actin polymerization & stabilization; inhibits actin filament disassembly
    • F-actin probe
    • MW = ~710
    • powder is stable frozen over a year
    • stock is stable 3-4 mo at -20C
    • Make 1 mM stock with 50 µg in 70 µL DMSO
    • Add 5 mL non-CO2 medium to make ~14 µM
    • 50 nM to 5 μM working range
    • minutes to hours incubation time


LDL kdorfman Fri, 05/11/2018 - 16:29

Low-density lipoprotein from human plasma, Dil complex (Dil LDL)

1 mg/mL

200 uL


Life Technologies L3482


Laminin kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 18:16

Laminin from mouse BD354232

1 mL 1 mM

Cell adhesion


Latrunculin kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 17:46

Alexis Biochemicals 350-036-C100 Catalog # t110

Inhibits actin polymerization and disrupts microfilament organization, as well as microfilament-mediated processes

Reported to be 10 to 100-fold more potent than the cytochalasins. May act more slowly, though. Lots of variation between cell lines.

Inactivated by FBS. (Rinse medium off before treatment.)

MW = 395.5

Soluble in DMSO and ethanol.

Store in freezer.

Active concentration range: 90 nm ( =~0.1µM) to 2.5 µM

(2.5 µM = 25 x 100 nm)

Stock is 1mm

µL 1mM stock µL serum-free buffer or medium µM final concentration
1 * 99 10
1 399 2.5
1 999 1

*Use this to make further dilutions


ML-7 kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 19:42

ML-7 Sigma, 12764.

selective myosin light chain kinase inhibitor

  • soluble 10mg/mL in 50% EtOH
  • MW = 452.74
  • 5 mg in bottle
  • add 1100 µL to make 10 mM solution
  • used at ~50 µM (1 µL/1mL) (Pat says 75 µM)
  • 75 µL 10 mM + 5 mL non-CO2 medium makes 150 µM
  • make 15 µL aliquots of 10 mM. Add 985 µL medium to make 150 µM

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 20:48

Sigma M4135 1 mg

Molecular Weight 1664.88

From Sigma: Amino Acid Sequence:


Pituitary hormone which causes darkening skin pigmentation from amphibians to humans. In mammals, it can also have behavioral effects on learning, attention, and memory.

Hormone that stimulates melanogenesis; facilitates learning and memory; affects inflammatory and immune responses and peripheral nerve regeneration.

α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) acts as an anti-inflammatory agent via down regulating the production and activity of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 expressed in various cells of the immune system. It also controls the nitric oxide production associated with inflammation. α−MSH inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent gene transcription and NF-κB pathway induced by TNF and other inflammatory agents. This activity of α-MSH is mediated through the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme. α–MSH functions as a potent therapeutics for various conditions resulted through NF-κB activation including, inflammatory diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and septic shock.[2] α-MSH has an essential role to play in melanin production in animals. α-MSH regulates development of several skin diseases, including cutaneous inflammation and hyper-proliferative skin diseases.[3] Linkage

Derived from ACTH 1-13 Other Notes

Lyophilized from 0.1% TFA in H2O Packaging

1, 5 mg in glass bottle Application

α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α–MSH) has been used for following studies: • it has been Intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected to mice for behavioral studies.[1] • to determine the effect of α−MSH on growth of stationary Nb 2 node lymphoma cell cultures.[4] • to determine the effect of α−MSH on leptin secretion in the primary cultures of differentiated adipocytes.[5] • α−MSH promoted melanin production in the B16-F1 cells from murine melanoma cell line.[6] General description

α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide, mostly produced by the cells in the brain, pituitary and circulation.[2] Pro-inflammatory cytokines or UV light induced epidermal cells such as keratinocytes and melanocytes synthesize and discharge α–MSH. Poopiomelanocortin (POMC) acts as a precursor for α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) production.[3]


Monastrol kdorfman Thu, 05/10/2018 - 15:17

Inhibits kinesin 5

200 mM in DMSO

Final concentration 200 uM

5.5 uL aliquots


Monensin kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 21:25

Monensin sodium salt

Sigma M5273

soluble in methanol 50 mg/mL

insoluble in water

soluble in DMSO, ethanol

ionophore which disrupts the structure of the Golgi apparatus and inhibits vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells

inhibits transition from G1 to S

antiprotozoal, antibacterial, or antifungal agent

MW 692.9

1 µM = half-maximal inhibitory effect

Nerve Growth Factor

Nerve Growth Factor kdorfman Fri, 05/11/2018 - 16:16

Nerve Growth Factor 2.5S

Harlan.com Cat no. 5025

From Sigma: 2.5S subunit of nerve growth factor-7S (NGF-7S) is essentially the β-subunit when isolated from male mouse submaxillary glands under initially dissociative conditions by a modification of the method of Bocchini and Angeletti.

Stored at 4C


Nocodazole kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:51

Prevents polymerization of microtubules. Prevents cells from entering metaphase.

  • Acros 358240100, 10 mg

  • Soluble in DMSO

  • Dilute stock in medium to treat cells.

  • Make a 10 mg/mL (=33mM) stock: Add 1 mL DMSO to 10 mg in bottle.

  • Aliquot 3 µL 33 mM per tube.

  • Working concentration range is usually 100nM - 30 µM.

  • add 97 µL DMSO to tube to make 100 µL of 1 mM

  • 33 µL 1mM + 10 mL medium = 3.3 µM


Oxidopamine kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 15:41

Oxidopamine (hydrobromide)

Selleck Chemicals S5324-25mg (Fisher 17159569)

MW = 250.09

Formula: C8H11NO3.HBr

Oxidopamine (6-hydroxydopamine, 6-OHDA, 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine) is a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound that acts as an antagonist of the neurotransmitter dopamine with potential antineoplastic activity. Solutions should be freshly prepared and protected from exposure to light.

solvent mg/mL mM
DMSO 50 mg/mL (199.93 mM)
Ethanol 50 mg/mL (199.93 mM)
Water 50 mg/mL (199.93 mM)
Concentration 1 mg/ 5 mg/ 10 mg/
1 mM 3.9986 mL 19.9928 mL 39.9856 mL
5 mM 0.7997 mL 3.9986 mL 7.9971 mL
10 mM 0.3999 mL 1.9993 mL 3.9986 mL
50 mM 0.0800 mL 0.3999 mL 0.7997 mL

Plant hormones

Plant hormones bcrcstaff Thu, 03/21/2019 - 14:49
Compound function Form Room storage stock Cat #
ABA Plant hormone involved in growth and stress response powder 362A fridge 50 mM in EtOH Fisher AC133480010
ABA powder soluble 20 mg/mL in DMSO, ethanol 362A freezer PlantMedia 30631017-1
soluble in methanol
Ascorbic acid Enzyme cofactor Powder 362A RT Fisher S26184
Caffeine Growth inhibitor Powder 362A RT Fisher ICN15011483
Chitosan medium viscosity Component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons Powder 362A RT Bio-World 40300161-1
Cycloheximide Protein synthesis inhibitor Powder 362A RT Fisher AC357420010
Gibberellic acid breaks seed dormancy 13 mg/mL (=37.5mM) solution 362A 4C PlantMedia 30631025-1
IAA auxin growth regulator
stimulates root growth
solid 362A 4C 100 mM in EtOH PlantMedia 30631010-
Imidacloprid (pestanal) Systemic insecticide neat 362A dessicator Sigma 37894
kinetin Plant cytokinin Powder 362A RT Sigma K0753
Lactic acid Plant growth stimulator 69% soln aq 362A dessicator Fisher AC250300100
Methyl jasmonate Pathogen response Liq 362A RT PlantMedia30631015-3
Nicotine Plant defense chemical liq 362A dessicator Fisher AC181420050
Salicylic acid Response to abiotic stress Powder 362A RT 100 mM in EtOH Fisher S25515
Selenium varies Powder 362A RT Strem 93-3416


Poly-L-Lysine kdorfman Thu, 04/26/2018 - 17:04

Non-specific attachment factor for cells; use it to coat coverslips.

Sigma P1524

  1. Add 50 ml of sterile tissue culture grade water to 5 mg of poly-lysine.
  2. Aseptically coat culture surface with 1 ml per 25 cm2 of solution. Rock gently to ensure even coating of the culture surface.
  3. After 5 minutes, remove solution by aspiration and thoroughly rinse surface with sterile tissue culture grade water.
  4. Allow to dry at least two hours before introducing cells and medium. If glassware or slides must be sterilized after coating with poly-lysine, γ-irradiation is recommended instead of autoclaving.

Can also buy poly-lysine coated slides: Fisher 6776215


Purmorphamine kdorfman Thu, 01/28/2021 - 18:25

Tocris 4551 10 mg

MW = 525.12

Make a 10 mM stock in DMSO in 1.9 mL DMSO


Retinol kdorfman Wed, 04/27/2022 - 17:09

Fisher J62079

Store in freezer; hygroscopic


MW = 286.459

General description (from Fisher)

  • All-trans-retinol, commonly known as Vitamin A, is a fat-soluble essential nutrient
  • All-trans-retinol is involved in hormonal signaling via the retinoid receptors
  • It is an important regulator of cell division and apoptosis
  • Deficiency can lead to vision, bone, immune, and skin disorders

Practically insoluble aq. soln. or glycerol; soluble in absolute alcohol, methanol, chloroform,ether,fats and oils.

Can make a 50 mg/mL solution in 95% ethanol, but it's very hard to weigh

From Sigma information sheet:


  • RE is practically insoluble in water or glycerol. It is soluble in absolute ethanol, methanol, chloroform, ether, fats and oils.
  • RE has been dissolved at 50 mg/ml in chloroform; a clear yellow to orange solution results.
  • Stock solutions of RE (1 mg/ml) were prepared in ethanol, diluted in DMSO under low light conditions and stored at -50°C under nitrogen in brown glass vials.
  • RE solutions (50 μM) were sterile filtered before use.
  • RE both as a solid and in solution is readily oxidized in air and inactivated by UV light.
  • To reduce photodestruction of RE, manipulations of RE solutions can be performed under yellow or red light.
  • Solutions may be stabilized by dissolving in oil, by the addition of anti-oxidant compounds including a-tocopherol or hydroquinone or by conversion to the palmitate and acetate esters.
  • It is recommended to prepare solutions fresh for optimal quality. However, if absolutely necessary, store solutions in the dark under an inert atmosphere at least at -20°C preferably at -70°C
  • Solvents preferred for storage are peroxide-free ethyl ether, acid-free acetone or ethyl acetate.
  • For short term storage, ethanol is suitable as a solvent for spectroscopic analysis.


  • The isolation of retinol from human plasma has been described.
  • RE is an effective antioxidant displaying lipoperoxy radical scavenging activity.
  • The interactions between RE and Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) in suppressing lipid peroxidation were observed in bovine retinal membrane preparations.
  • RE may influence the production of transition vesicles by stimulating the activity of a protein disulfide isomerase-like activity involved in vesicle formation.
  • RE may be involved in immune system mechanisms; an RE deficiency will depress the immune response producing a negative effect on both humoral and cellular immunity.
  • (10 μM) and other retinoid compounds effectively induced sanguinarine and chelerythrine (benzophenanthridine alkaloids) accumulation in suspension-cell cultures of Sanguinaria canadensis in a way similar to fungal elicitation.
  • RE (10 μM) stimulated DNA synthesis and possibly repair mechanisms in Sertoli cells of rat.


The USP unit of vitamin A (same as the International Unit6) is equal to 0.3 μg of the pure all-trans isomer of retinol which is equivalent to 0.344 μg of all-trans retinyl acetate. RE and its metabolites, including retinoic acid, are part of the retinoid class of compounds, involved in vision, normal embryo morphogenesis and in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of a number of cell types. Current information and hypotheses on the absorption, transport, storage and metabolism of this fat soluble Vitamin A (retinol) have been reviewed. Studies on RE metabolism including its mobilization and transport in plasma and in tissues via serum and cytosolic retinol-binding proteins have been described.


STLC kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:51
  • STLC Sigma 164739 (Fisher 50-703-1833), MW = 363.47

(+)-S-Trityl-L-cysteine is a cell-permeable selective inhibitor of mitotic kinesin Eg5 and ATPase activities.

KIF11 (also known as kinesin-5 and Eg5) is a homotetramer which cross-links anti-parallel microtubules in the mitotic spindle to maintain spindle bipolarity. The motor domain or motor head is at the N-terminus and performs ATP hydrolysis and binds to microtubules. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinesin_family_member_11)

  • Make 100 mM stock:

    • 1 g in bottle.
    • Mix with 27.5 mL DMSO
    • heat to 65C (~10 min), vortex
    • if necessary, filter sterilize to remove insoluble particles.
    • save as 1 mL aliquots in freezer. (dilute 1:10,000 to use) (dilute 1:100 to make 1 mM)
  • Make 1 mM stock from the 100 mM stock

    • 10 µL 1mM stock
    • 990 µL DMSO
    • vortex
    • it will crystallize in the refrigerator. Warm (60C) and vortex to redissolve it. DO NOT LEAVE IN HOT BLOCK - IT WILL TURN BLACK!
  • Make 10 µL aliquots of 1 mM stock. Freeze

    • label says to add 990 µL medium to make 10 µM working solution

Sodium alginate

Sodium alginate kdorfman Thu, 04/28/2022 - 14:52


Fisher 177770050 $22.41

(Can get 100g from Sigma for $55, but with long lead time)


MW=120,000-190,000 g/moL

The following is from Sigma:
General description

Alginic acid sodium is a gelling and nontoxic anionic polysaccharide. The carboxylic acid groups on the alginic acid chain, renders it insoluble in water.However, converting alginic acid to its sodium form, enables it to solubilize in water easily.


Alginic acid sodium is used:

  • in combination with chitosan, to fabricate a biodegradable porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
  • to study the characteristics of a modified amphiphilic alginate derivative
  • to the study the impact of alginate on the rate of lipid digestion by employing an in vitro digestion model
  • in the preparation of alginate hydrogels
  • as encapsulating agents of microparticles of β-galactosidae


THC kdorfman Fri, 04/22/2022 - 17:40

Restek 34067

Delta-9 THC Standard

1 mg/mL in methanol (=~3.18 mM)


MW = 314.469


Taxol kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:51

Taxol (20 µM final)

Fisher 109710 Paclitaxel.
Sigma T7402 1mg
MW = 853.91

  • Stabilizes the microtubule polymer
  • Protects microtulues from disassembly.
  • Prevents metaphase spindle configuration
  • Blocks progression of mitosis and prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers apoptosis or reversion to the G-phase of the cell cycle without cell division.

  • soluble in DMSO, not water.

  • Add 0.117 mL DMSO to make a 0.01M (=10 mM) stock solution from the 1 mg powder

  • Aliquot 10 µL 10 mM (if it precipitates, add 10 uL DMSO and vortex, then add 480 uL medium or buffer)

    • add 490 µL to make 200µM
    • dilute into medium from there (100 uL Taxol/mL medium)

Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones kdorfman Fri, 09/06/2019 - 18:38

for Fish

5 mL per well for treatment

PTU (inhibitor) Sigma p3755
MW 170.2

  • 50 mg/mL in 1M NaOH
  • 16 mg/mL in alcohol
  • 1 mg/mL in RT water
  • 10 mg/mL in boiling water

In order to get the following doses, best to make it in hot fish water; otherwise, the NaOH or EtOH will be too concentrated in the final dilution.

  • dose 1: 0.5 mM

  • dose 2: 1.0mM

MW of PTU:
Concentration: M
to make: mL
add: g PTU

L-T4 (thyroxin) Sigma T2376
MW: 776.87

  • 50 mg/ml in 4M NH4OH in MeOH
  • 0.5 mg/mL in 1:5 DMSO:PBS

Solution is good for ~ 1 day.

Make a 1 mM stock in 1M NaOH. Takes a long time. Vortex.

Priya's recipe: 1 mg/mL in 1M NaOH (~25.7 uM stock)

Working concentrations

  • dose 1: 100 nM (=0.1 uM)

  • dose 2: 300 nM (=0.3 uM)

MW of T4:
Concentration: M
to make: mL
add: g T4

Trichostatin A

Trichostatin A kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 19:52

Cayman 89730

10 mM

Histone deacetylase Inhibitor

Trichostatin A (TSA), an antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus, is a potent and specific inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are overexpressed in various cancers and closely correlate with oncogenic factors.

Trichostatin A is active at nanomolar concentrations in mammalian cells. By suppressing the activity of HDACs, it leads to increased histone acetylation, thereby causing highly acetylated histones to accumulate in the cell [2]. This in turn induces enhanced expression of specific genes that elicit extensive cellular morphologic and metabolic changes such as growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis. At submicromolar concentrations Trichostatin A has been shown to induce apoptosis in diverse cancer cells while exhibiting very low toxicity to normal cells.

TSA is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, TSA should be directly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl (1.3 mg/ml) and then neutralized with PBS (pH 7.2) to achieve the desired concentration or pH. Approximately 0.7 ml of PBS (pH 7.2) is required to neutralize 1 ml of the acidic solution. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one day.


Valinomycin kdorfman Wed, 04/25/2018 - 21:03

Potassium Ionophore, MW: 1111.32

Sigma V0627

Insoluble in water

stock is 10 mg/mL in DMSO

  • cyclododecadepsi-peptide ionophore antibiotic.
  • potassium ionophore that transports K+ across biological and artificial lipid membranes.
  • can induce K conductivity in cell membranes
  • uncouples oxidative phosphorylation,
  • induces apoptosis in murine thymocytes, and in pre-B cell.
  • inhibits NGF-induced neuronal differentiation
  • antagonizes ET-induced vasoconstriction.
  • Useful in studies of K transport in mitochondria.


Valproate kdorfman Fri, 03/25/2022 - 15:34

Sodium Valproate (Fisher 11474361)

Store powder at RT

Make 100 mM stock: 0.166g in 10 mL H2O

___ ___
SKU 02152064-CF
Alternate Names 2-Propyl pentanoic acid; Valproic acid sodium salt; Sodium 2-propylpentanoate
Application Notes Sodium Valproate is reported to cause inositol depletion, activate the ERK pathway, inhibit GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Valproic Acid has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC (histone deacetylase) in vitro (IC50 = 400 μM for HDAC1), thereby relieving HDAC-dependent transcriptional repression and causes the hyperacetylation of histones in cultured cells. In animal studies, Valproic Acid has been observed to reduce tumor growth and metastasis formation. Additionally, Valproic Acid is reported to activate Wnt-dependent gene expression and to mimic trichostatin A in the inhibition of histone deacetylase. This compound is also an inhibitor of the CYP2C9 enzyme.
Base Catalog Number 152064
Biochemical Physiological Actions Anti-convulsant that also has efficacy as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder.
Boiling Point 219.5 deg C
CAS # 1069-66-5
Density 0.904 g/cu cm at 25 deg C
EC Number 213-961-8
Format Crystalline powder
Hazard Statements H302
Molecular Formula C8H15NaO2
Molecular Weight 166.196 g/mol
Personal Protective Equipment Dust mask , Eyeshields, Gloves
RTECS Number YV7876000
Safety Symbol GHS07
Solubility In water, 2.0X10+3 mg/L at 20 deg C
Usage Statement Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. For more information, please contact our customer service department.
Vapor Pressure 8.47X10-2 mm Hg at 25 deg C (est)


Vasopressin kdorfman Mon, 04/23/2018 - 17:50

(=Anti-diuretic hormone)

causes calcium oscillations

1 mM stock in water
(NO CALCIUM, so stock can be used for Ca-free solutions in Lab 7.2)

1 mg in bottle, MW = 1084
Add 0.92 mL to make 1mM stock

1 µL aliquots in freezer

1 µM dilution to make student solutions

1 µL 1 mM in 999 µL water

(NO CALCIUM, so stock can be used for Ca-free solutions in Lab 7.2)

Vitamin D

Vitamin D kdorfman Fri, 04/22/2022 - 17:53

Thermo Scientific B22524.03



MW = 384.65

Solubility (from Cayman Chemical)

solvent mg/mL = mM
ethanol 30 ~78 mM
DMSO 3 ~ 7.8 mM
DMF 25 ~65 mM

Stock solution: 29 mg/mL (~75 mM) in ethanol

General Description (from Thermo Scientific)

  • Vitamin D3 is a steroid hormone generated in the skin when the 7-dehydrocholesterol interacts with ultraviolet irradiation. It can also be found in several types of food for daily intake.
  • Vitamin D3 binds to vitamin D receptors, thus modulating gene expression


  • In in vivo studies, vitamin D3 has been implicated in the maintenance of blood calcium and phosphorus levels, bone metabolism, metabolic functions, and transcription regulation
  • It modulates the proliferation and differentiation of both normal and cancer cells
  • It presents in vitro antiproliferative and antimetastatic activities on breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells